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Drivers of Land Use Change

A wide range of factors have impacted on current land use in Tasmania and will continue to impact on changes in rural land use in Tasmania over the next five to 10 years. A number of these drivers are discussed in this section along with some of the general issues facing agriculture and forestry.


7.1. AGRICULTURE
Drivers of agricultural land use in Tasmania include:

  • Terms of trade
  • Productivity improvement
  • Processing company capacity and requirements
  • Fresh market fruit and vegetable potential
  • Irrigation water availability
  • Land availability
  • Natural resource management issues
  • Tasmanian Food Industry Strategy
  • "Clean and Green" image

Each of these drivers is discussed below.

Terms of Trade

Prices received and paid are important drivers in agricultural land use. Commodity prices can fluctuate substantially between years. In real terms some show a long-term downward trend.

In terms of the likely short to medium term trend, the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics Outlook Conference in early 2003 forecast an overall Australian decline in farmer's terms of trade from an index value of 103.3 in 2002-03 to 88.3 in 2007-0815.

The following price changes (in nominal terms) have been forecast by Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics for agricultural products for the five-year period from 2002-03 to 2007-08:

  • The Eastern Market Indicator for wool to fall from 1,070 c/kg (clean) to 780 c/kg
  • Australian net pool returns for wheat to fall from $265/t to $224/t
  • Saleyard prices for cattle to increase slightly from 237 c/kg dressed to 243 c/k
  • Saleyard prices for lamb to fall from 326 c/kg dressed to 293 c/kg
  • Saleyard prices for pig meat to increase from 254 c/kg dressed to 288 c/kg
  • Farm gate milk prices to increase from 28.5 c/l to 30.0 c/l. This represents a slight fall in real terms

Price projections are not provided for the smaller agricultural sectors such as grapes, cherries, apricots and walnuts that have shown growth in recent years. However, there is no apparent reason to suggest that growth cannot continue in these crops.

Poppies have been a major contributor to the recent growth in gross value of agricultural production in Tasmania. Prices paid to farmers for the 2003-04 crop have been reduced (along with crop area) and will probably remain down for the next year or so.

The index of prices paid by farmers is expected to increase from 107.0 in 2002-03 to 116.6 in 2007-08. This represents an average farm inflation rate of 1.7 per cent per annum.

The overall projection is for a general reduction in terms of trade for agriculture over the next few years. However, there is potential for improvements in productivity to at least partly offset the impact of this trend.

Differences in terms of trade movements within agriculture and between it and forestry will impact on land usage over the next five years. The indication that milk and beef prices are likely to increase (at least in nominal terms) may restrict further conversion of higher rainfall pasture areas to plantations - depending on a range of other factors including wood and timber prices.

Productivity Improvement

Where terms of trade are static or declining, improvements in productivity are required to maintain or improve the contribution of a particular sector.

In the past, important industries such as dairying, vegetables and poppies have shown a capacity to continue to improve overall productivity and output. In the case of dairying, for example, larger farm and herd sizes, increased irrigation and increased output per person have led to a substantial increase in total output despite a reduction in total dairy farm numbers. The question for this and other major sectors is whether such improvements in productivity can be maintained into the future.

Achieving larger scale of operation is likely to be important in the growth of dairying and vegetable production (as well as other industries) and is likely to see continued expansion in the Northern Natural Resource Management Region where larger scale properties are more common. For the same reason amalgamation of properties is also likely to be an ongoing trend, particularly in some of the more traditional North Western Natural Resource Management Region areas. Leasing of additional land is another method used to increase the overall scale of operation.

For the processed vegetable industry in general, and specifically potatoes, it has been suggested by industry sources that increases in yield per hectare, and thereby some overall reduction in factory input costs, will be required before any major expansion in processing facilities and crop area is contemplated.

Processing Company Capacity and Requirements

A significant proportion of Tasmania's agricultural production is "value-added" before leaving the State. The capacity of manufacturing plants to handle increased throughput and the requirements of those companies will be a direct determinant of agricultural land use trends in the future.

While no major constraint issues have been raised in the short-term, it is possible that there may be medium-term (5-10 year) constraints for both milk manufacturing and processing facilities and vegetable processing facilities.

In relation to the dairy industry, there are seven manufacturers and processors within the State plus several farm cheese operations. Bonlac, with factories at Devonport and Wynyard, is the largest manufacturer, accounting for around 60 per cent of the State's milk. It is also the only company actively encouraging increased output. While Bonlac's manufacturing capacity may be an issue in the future if milk production continues to expand, there are a number of options, including reasonably economic expansion at the Devonport site, that should enable expansion to continue providing milk prices are sufficiently high to encourage further production.

While there are no immediate capacity constraints in the processed vegetable sector, there may be some medium to longer term issues. For example, the potato processing industry is a major component of the vegetable sector, both in terms of land use and total value of production. Simplot is the largest processor and has factories at Ulverstone and Scottsdale, with processing to be centralised at Ulverstone from December 2003. With a gradual increase in throughput predicted over the next five or six years it is anticipated that factory capacity will be reached at that time. Longer-term expansion will depend on the industry becoming more competitive with overseas producers such as New Zealand. The other major processor, McCains, is smaller than Simplot but does have some further potential for expansion.

Oversupply of medicinal alkaloids as a result of the world market conditions and increased poppy crop production in Tasmania over the past two seasons has led to a reduction of crop area and price for the 2003-04 year. Industry sources suggest that this situation may remain for the next year or so but longer-term increases in area are possible. Part of the crop is processed locally and part in Victoria. The recent cut back in area planted should mean that lack of factory capacity is unlikely to be an issue in the foreseeable future.

Fresh Market Potential
Recent contact with fresh vegetable operators has indicated potential for some increase in output over the next few years. This will depend on a number of factors including mainland prices, freight access and cost, availability of casual labour, greater access to water for irrigation and control of costs.

Improvements in shipping frequency with the introduction of the two Bass Strait ferries also has the potential to increase the demand for a range of fresh vegetables and fruits. The introduction of a third ferry in early 2004 may also expand opportunities for Tasmanian produce into Sydney.

Irrigation Water Availability
The availability of water for irrigation has been identified by the State Government and farmer and industry bodies as a key factor in the maintenance of current agricultural output, and the potential for expansion. As such it is likely to be a key driver of rural land use trends in the future.

In recent years a number of legislative changes and other government initiatives have been made which will affect water availability for irrigation. Some of these are outlined below:

Water Management Act, 1999

This Act provides for the preparation of statutory water management plans, the development of which are currently progressing on a priority basis agreed with the Commonwealth. These provide for an environmental flow, and are also a vehicle for integrating the priorities for use of water on a catchment scale.

The Act also provides for transferability of water licences. For the first three years this was limited to temporary or conditional transfers but that limitation is no longer in place. This limitation has recently elapsed and will increasingly allow for the transfer of irrigation water to higher value enterprises such as vegetables and perennial horticulture.

Environmental Flow Requirements

Since 1995, environmental flows in summer have been protected on water courses that were considered stressed (or more developed) by implementing a policy of not issuing any new water licences on these systems and also by implementing restriction thresholds on water extraction during summer. Such restrictions are only lifted for those water resources when an appropriate environmental flow regime has been established. Additional temporary allocations have been provided on some rivers where environmental flow requirements are expected to be readily met.

Environmental water requirements have been determined for many of Tasmania's rivers. These environmental water requirements will be used in developing environmental water provisions through Water Management Plans.

Under the Water Management Act 1999, in areas where a water management plan has not been developed, the Minister may approve applications for new water allocations (including water taken into dams) only when this would meet the objectives of the Act. The Act's objectives include the sustainable use of the water resources and the maintenance of ecological processes and genetic diversity for aquatic ecosystems.

The Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment has developed guidelines to provide guidance for issuing new water allocations from water courses during winter under the Water Management Act 199916. They aim to provide a clear, consistent and equitable approach to the granting of new winter water allocations while protecting the health of the State's rivers and estuaries and the rights of existing users.

The Water Development Plan for Tasmania

The State Government has released a Water Development Plan for Tasmania that identifies strategic initiatives to manage and develop the State's freshwater resources17.

Specific opportunities identified by the Water Development Plan to date are:

  • Increase availability and reliability of irrigation water supplies in the Meander region through the construction of the Meander DamIncrease irrigation opportunities in the South East through identifying the best options for providing water to productive parcels of agricultural land
  • Transport water from the Great Lake/Arthurs Lake area for irrigation in the Clyde, Derwent and Jordan Catchments
  • Increase irrigation in the Circular Head Region
  • Investigate water development opportunities in the north east in the St Patricks and Ringarooma catchments plus other options
  • Investigate water development opportunities in the north east including a potential scheme at Jetsonville and a winter storage at
  • Headquarters Road on a tributary of the Greater Forester River
  • Increase irrigation supplies in the South Esk basin (eg proposed Chimney Hill Dam on the Elizabeth River)
  • Link domestic water needs with irrigation needs on the East Coast
  • Make available water for irrigation from the Wesley Vale pipeline
  • Make available water for irrigation from the various Cradle Coast
  • Water domestic water supply systems along the North West Coast
  • Impact of Forestry Plantations on Catchment Run-Off

A further issue in relation to the availability of irrigation water supplies for agriculture that has arisen in recent years is the impact of fast growing plantations on catchment run-off.

Forestry plantation development has the potential to impact on water supplies by increasing evapo-transpiration and thereby reducing groundwater recharge and run-off. The impact may be beneficial or detrimental depending on the specific circumstances:

 

Beneficial - a reduction in ground water recharge may eventually lower water tables in areas where dryland salinity is a risk.

Beneficial - reduced flooding risk and soil degradation during heavy rainfall events by increasing water retention (except immediately following harvesting).

Detrimental - a reduction in run-off has the potential to impact on down-stream water users and on environmental flow.

Some initial analysis of the impact of forestry plantations has been undertaken in Tasmania. Bren and O'Shaughnessy18 looked at the possible impact of forestry developments in the St Patricks and North Esk catchments on Launceston's water supply. A model was prepared that suggested a small reduction in water supply as a result of current and past logging regimes. However, some projections of increased plantation activities suggested a maximum diminution of about 8-10 per cent in the flows in the future should such activities come to pass. This could cause a small increase in uncertainty of supply in the months of February to March by exacerbating the existing situation. In response to this projection a working group associated with the study noted that the 8-10 per cent reduction in annual water yield would only occur if all suitable cleared land was converted to fast growing plantation and that that situation was unlikely to occur.

The issue of detrimental impacts in catchments where there is a large proportion of quickly growing trees was raised in the Resource Planning and Development Commission inquiry into implementation of the Regional Forest Agreement19. It considered that the Natural Resource Management Framework (see below) should specifically address the interrelationship between forest management, water yields and the water management and planning process.

In general terms plantation forestry has the potential to significantly reduce stream flows available for irrigation if new plantations replace pasture or other relatively low water use vegetation cover in a significant proportion of the catchment area. This is more likely to be an issue with smaller catchments and localised areas rather than on a broad scale basis.

Land Availability

The proportion of high quality cropping land or prime agricultural land (ie Classes 1, 2 & 3) in Tasmania is relatively small. Annual crops can be grown on Class 4 land but there are often limitations, which may require drainage to be installed, or the use of raised bed technology. Longer spells between cropping phases may also be required to limit the possibility of structural decline given the more fragile nature of some of these soils.

On the other hand there is a large amount of Class 4 and 5 land throughout the State, which although it has some limitations in terms of annual cropping potential, has considerable potential for irrigated pasture production - as well as beef and sheep production and plantation development. Providing milk prices are sufficiently high this would allow for a significant expansion in dairy production in the State.

In the drier areas of Tasmania and where drainage and frost are not limiting, lower class land has potential for expansion of perennial horticulture such as grapes, cherries and apricots. In the Coal River Valley, for example, non-prime land on east and north facing slopes is preferred for vineyards over flat, higher land capability land on the valley floor.

Natural Resource Management Issues

A number of natural resource management issues have the potential to impact on land use into the future:

Water Quality

Reductions in effluent and fertiliser run-off will continue to be required from both a community and legislative point of view.

There are a number of State and Local Government policy instruments in this regard, including the State Policy on Water Quality and Management. The Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment has an overarching brief under the Environmental Management and Pollution Control Act to reduce the potential for environmental harm or nuisance. Municipal councils throughout the State also have a role in relation to pollution from dairy farms, stock crossings etc.

In addition, the Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association which represents the overall interests of farmers in the State has been involved in the development of guidelines for land managers, dairy effluent etc. A code of practice has been developed by the Australian Fertiliser Association to cover spreading, handling, transport and storage of fertilisers.

The State and Local Governments and community groups have also been involved in improving waterways through Natural Heritage Trust funded programs such as Rivercare. Natural Heritage Trust devolved grant projects have been used for on-ground works associated with the protection of rivers and streams in a number of municipalities.

Salinity

Salinity is an issue that has the potential to limit the expansion of agriculture in the State, particularly in a number of areas that have been identified as "at risk". In general, these are in dryland areas where removal of vegetation from surrounding hills has resulted in a rise in water tables, bringing naturally saline groundwater closer to the surface. Where such areas are then converted to irrigated cropping it is important that efficient application practices, drainage and monitoring are employed to ensure that crop damage does not occur.

The National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality has identified 21 priority areas for salinity in Australia. One of these "Midlands" is in Tasmania and covers much of the Eastern part of the State.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics undertook a survey in 2001 as a supplement to the Agricultural Census. The Tasmanian results of that survey are outlined in Table 37 and compared to other estimates of salinity or risk of salinity for the State.

Non-irrigated farms accounted for 93 per cent of the agricultural land showing signs of salinity Australia-wide. Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania were assessed as being the areas least affected by salinity.

Table 37: Area of Salinity in Tasmania

 Table 37: Area of Salinity in Tasmania

While salinity has the potential to cause problems in a number of agricultural areas in the State it does not mean that agriculture in general, or irrigated agriculture in particular, will be precluded. Prevention of over-irrigation, attention to drainage, and monitoring of water tables and salinity levels can permit irrigated agriculture to continue in a sustainable manner. In this regard modern irrigation technology including centre-pivot irrigators is capable of more accurately applying water to pasture and crops than in the past.

State Policy for the Protection of Agricultural Land

The State Policy for the Protection of Agricultural Land, 2000 was introduced for the purpose of protecting agricultural land from development that could reduce, inhibit or extinguish agricultural productivity. The Policy specifically targets prime agricultural land (defined as being Class 1, 2 or 3 under the land capability classification system in Tasmania) from development, except under certain circumstances. Municipal Council planning schemes throughout Tasmania have been modified to facilitate the administration of this Policy. The Policy, which recognises plantation forestry as an agricultural crop, has a total of seven principles.

 

Principle 1  Prime agricultural land is a resource to be protected from conversion to non-agricultural use and development.

Principle 2  A dwelling or other use or development may only be permitted on prime agricultural land where the provisions of the planning scheme have been reviewed to ensure it properly reflects the intent of the State Policy. 

Principle 3  Use or development of any building that is an integral part of an agricultural use on prime agricultural land will be determined to be consistent with this Policy.

Principle 4  Provision of public utilities or other infrastructure or a proposal of significant economic benefit to the region may cause prime agricultural land to be converted to non-agricultural use. Such conversion must: (i) comply with the planning scheme or amendment; and (ii) have the Resource Planning and Development Commission confirm there is an overriding need for a use or development for community benefit and a suitable alternative site is not available.

Principle 5  Protection of other than prime agricultural land from conversion to non-agricultural use will be determined through planning schemes.

Principle 6  Adjoining non-agricultural use and development should not unreasonably fetter agricultural uses.

Principle 7  Planning schemes will make provisions for the appropriate protection of the range of non-prime agricultural lands within a specified irrigation scheme.

While the State Policy should be effective in preventing the alienation of land from agriculture, difficulties have been experienced for both owners and Council officials in its implementation. Land owners particularly affected are those who have purchased small parcels of land within rural areas. Applications for development are now subject to a land capability assessment. Some owners are now finding that they cannot build a house on these blocks or if a building permit is granted, that there are restrictions on where the house can be built.

The Policy also has implications for urban development. Some Councils have re-zoned good agricultural land on the fringes of towns from residential to rural. Future expansion of townships will need to be focused on areas that are not classified as prime agricultural land.

Native Vegetation Clearing Controls

Community concern in relation to clearing of native vegetation for agricultural purposes has led to recent amendments to the Forest Practices Act 1985 (Tas). These have extended the ambit of the Act to all forest clearing operations on all land tenures, and not just those involved in commercial forestry operations.

This means that the provisions of the Forest Practices Code, and specifically those relating to streamside reserves, erosion control, soil management, and pollution control, now relate to most forest clearing operations.

Land Covenants

Under the Regional Forest Agreement provision was made for protection of certain forest types on private land that were not adequately protected on public land. An agreed target of 100,000 hectares was established in November 1997 and the Private Forest Reserve Program was launched in 2000. To date the total area of forests protected by covenants on private land is 20,623 hectares20 on 127 properties. Most of these properties are in the Southern Natural Resource Management Region (mainly south east and east coasts). A likely longer term figure for total forests protected on private land is 60,000 to 70,000 hectares.

More recently, the State Government has announced its intention to work with farmers for protection of non-forest native vegetation, particularly areas of native grassland such as poa (tussock grass) and themeda (kangaroo grass) communities.

Tasmanian Food Industry Strategy

The Food Industry Council of Tasmania was established in June 1999. The Council is a body of industry representatives advising the Minister for Economic Development.

The Agriculture, Aquaculture, Fishing, Food and Beverages Industry Audit in 1999 estimated that the turnover of the food industry was approximately $1.7 billion per annum.21 The State Government has a target of doubling the value of primary industry output by the year 2010.

The Food Industry Council of Tasmania considers that doubling the annual turnover of the food industry to $3.4 billion by the year 2010 would be an achievable and complementary objective.22 Eight strategies were decided upon in 2000 and a set of objectives and broad actions was set down for each of these strategies.

"Clean and Green" Image

The Tasmanian Government and a number of industry sectors have decided to promote Tasmania's "clean and green" image to improve overall returns from agriculture and to further develop tourism based around that general image. Promotion of this image has the potential to affect land use patterns over time.

Genetically Modified Organism Moratorium

The State Government has instituted a moratorium on the use of Genetically Modified Organisms in Tasmania, particularly in relation to food production. Some industries, and individual companies, are likely to benefit from that moratorium from a marketing point of view. On the other hand, there is potential for some agricultural sectors to become less competitive over time as their mainland and overseas competitors are able to reduce costs of production, or improve quality, as a result of this technology.

Organic Production

Tasmania has a small but growing organic industry.

While there are only a few "commercial" organic producers, organic farms are found throughout the State and are involved in varying enterprises from wine to sheep's cheese. A survey of the industry in November 2002 by the Organic Coalition23 indicated that over 70 per cent of the estimated farm gate value of the 39 respondents came from vegetables and herbs.

A recent Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment overview of the industry reports 86 certified organic producers in Tasmania with another 50 in various stages of conversion, producing an estimated $3.4 million worth of product on 4,000 hectares of land24. The report states that there are approximately a dozen larger scale operations but the majority of the organic farmers are small-scale operations where lifestyle and philosophy play a big part in the reason for being involved.

Overall it is not anticipated that organic production will have a significant impact on rural land use in Tasmania in the foreseeable future.

7.2. FORESTRY
Plantation industry drivers include the following

  • Regional Forest Agreement
  • Plantations for Australia: The 2020 Vision
  • Forestry Growth Plan
  • Plantation Prospectus Companies
  • Markets and Timber Prices
  • Landcare and Natural Resource Management Initiatives
  • Regional Forest Agreement

Under the Regional Forest Agreement, the Commonwealth provided Tasmania (Forestry Tasmania) with $68 million to establish approximately 20,000 hectares of new plantations to replace eucalypt sawlog forgone through additional reservation. This program is nearing completion but has been a driver for Forestry Tasmania to purchase private land since 1997.

Plantations for Australia: The 2020 Vision

In 1997 the Commonwealth government, in conjunction with State governments and the forest industry, launched "Plantations for Australia: The 2020 Vision". The aim of the 2020 Vision is to promote the expansion of the national plantation resource by addressing market impediments to efficient plantation development25

The 2020 Vision envisages a major expansion of Australia's timber plantation resources.

A number of major drivers behind the expansion of forest plantations in the latter part of the 1990s were outlined by Richard Stanton, the National Plantations Co-ordinator for the 2020 Vision26:

Resource for off-shore manufacturers.
Domestic investment opportunity - 70 per cent of expansion funded by domestic investors. through a range of prospectus based projects. Taxation deferral benefits for taxpayers on high marginal tax rates.
Agricultural industry decline - sheep and cattle grazing.
Ownership changes - sale of significant areas of mature forests.
Regional Forest Agreements - increase in confidence in the industry, especially in Tasmania.
Maturing plantation industry - softwoods planted in the 1960s and 1970s.
Greenhouse and carbon trading - the potential to use plantations for storing carbon under the Kyoto Protocol raised the interest of investors.
Natural resource management factors - trees have been identified as having a key role in improving natural resource management benefits.
2020 Vision confidence - positive and expansionary outlook.
Forestry Growth Plan

The Forestry Growth Plan was announced by the Tasmanian Government in 1998. The aim of the Plan is to build a world scale plantation resource to support internationally competitive and value-adding forest industries. Within the State there are three plantation "nodes" in the South, North East and North West. This plan builds on the Regional Forest Agreement funded plantations.

The value-adding that is envisaged under the Plan includes expanded sawmilling of softwood and rotary peeled veneer from hardwood (eg Southwood in the Huon and at Smithton).

Plantation Prospectus Companies

The rapid expansion of forestry plantations on private land in recent times was largely based on plantation prospectus companies - Forest Enterprises Australia and Gunns Ltd in particular. Prospectus companies attract private investment to finance establishment of plantations on company freehold and leasehold land.

A taxation benefit that allowed 100 per cent deductibility of up-front establishment expense was a key feature behind the plantation establishment that occurred in the mid to late 1990's.

Until November 1999 the "13 month rule" allowed expenditure on establishment of plantations to be included as a tax deduction up to 13 months prior to the expense having been incurred. After November 1999 the rule was changed so that expenditure incurred by an investor was only deductible when the service had been performed rather than being immediately deductible. This change resulted in dramatic reduction in investment funds and a scaling back of plantation development on private land. More recently the tax rule has been changed back to 12 months and investment in plantation prospectus companies has increased. This is likely to lead to interest in further expansion of plantations on cleared agricultural land.

Land Prices

The rapid expansion of plantation forestry in the mid to late 1990s resulted in an increase in land prices for areas with soils, rainfall and altitude suitable for plantation development. For example, "back-country" grazing and seed potato properties that had been valued at around $2,500 per hectare increased to $3,700 to $4,000 per hectare. The higher prices were paid for undulating basalt soils in areas such as Circular Head and inland from Burnie and Ulverstone. Reasonable quality land at Nietta which is a relatively high (400-500m) and cold area reached prices of $3,000-$3,500 per hectare. $3,750 per hectare was paid for land at Preston.

According to the Government Valuer (pers. comm.) in mid 2000, the five-year government revaluation of potential forest properties in the Central Coast municipality resulted in a conservative increase of 30 per cent over the previous valuation - more realistically probably a 50 per cent increase. At the same time the value of higher value cropping and dairying properties had not changed.

While the high land prices may have eased somewhat since that time, they did allow owners of relatively uneconomic "back-country" properties to sell up and either exit agriculture or relocate to more productive areas.

Markets and Timber Prices

Growing and attractive markets that have been established for plantation grown timber (Radiata Pine and Eucalypt pulpwood) have also attracted farmers and investors.

In relation to timber production in general, the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics expects increases in the supply of hardwood chips from plantations in Australia, Chile and South Africa to exceed expected increases in demand in Asia to 2007. As a result the price of hardwood chips is expected to continue to fall. "The world price for hardwood chips has fallen at an average rate of 6.7 per cent a year since 1995 in real terms. If current rates of productivity improvement continue, the price of hardwood chips will continue to fall at a similar rate until 2007" 27.

In relation to Tasmanian woodchip prices it appears that while export prices are somewhat cyclical they have been reasonably constant over time. In general, Tasmanian woodchips are of higher quality than mainland Australia reflecting higher pulp yields. It is expected that markets for Tasmanian plantation grown woodchips will remain strong in both domestic and overseas markets. Gunns Ltd has a strategy to considerably expand the area of hardwood plantation on private land. This is likely to be a strong driver for land use change in suitable areas.

NOTES:
15 Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Australian Commodities 03.1, Outlook 2003, March Quarter 2003.
16 Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Water Resources Policy # 1/2003, Guidelines to assess applications for new water allocations from water courses during winter, 2003.
17 Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, About the Water Development Plan for Tasmania, web site: dpiwe.tas.gov.au
18 Bren,L., and O'Shaughnessy, P., An Analysis of the Growth of Eucalypt Forests on Launceston's Water Supply, Report prepared for Forest Practices Board, December 2001.
19 Resource Planning and Development Commission, Inquiry on the Progress with Implementation of the Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement (1997), December 2002.
20 Dr.S.Smith, Manager, Private Forest Reserves Program, Oct 2003, pers.comm.
21 Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Agriculture, Aquaculture, Fishing, Food and Beverages Industry Audit, 1999.
22 Tasmanian Food Industry Strategy, July 2000.
23 Organic Coalition of Tasmania, Report on Tasmanian Organic Industry Survey, November 2002, March 2003.
24 Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Overview of Organic Farming in Tasmania, Food & Agriculture,
www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au
25 Ministerial Council on Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture 1997.
26 Stanton, R., An Overview of Timber Plantation Development in Australia - Drivers, Trends and Prospects, Plantations, Farm Forestry and Water, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Publication No. 01/20, July 2000.
27 Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Australian Commodities 03.1, Outlook 2003, March Quarter 2003.