Pogrom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Hep-Hep riots in Frankfurt, 1819. On the left, two peasant women are assaulting a Jewish man with pitchfork and broom. On the right, a man wearing spectacles, tails, and a six-button waistcoat, "perhaps a pharmacist or a schoolteacher,"[1] holds another Jewish man by the throat and is about to club him with a truncheon. The houses are being looted. A contemporary engraving by Johann Michael Voltz.

A pogrom is a violent massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews. The term originally entered the English language to describe 19th- and 20th-century attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire (mostly within the Pale of Settlement in present-day Ukraine); similar attacks against Jews at other times and places also became retrospectively known as pogroms. The word is now also sometimes used to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups.[2][3][4][5][6]

Significant pogroms in the Russian Empire included the Odessa pogroms, Warsaw pogrom (1881), Kishinev pogrom (1903), Kiev Pogrom (1905), and Białystok pogrom (1906), and, after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the Lwów pogrom (1918) and Kiev Pogroms (1919). The most significant pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht of 1938 in which 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and subsequently incarcerated in concentration camps,[7] 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.[8][9]

Notorious pogroms of World War II included the 1941 Farhud in Iraq, the July 1941 Iaşi pogrom in Romania – in which over 13,200 Jews were killed – as well as the Jedwabne pogrom in Poland. Post-World War II pogroms included the 1945 Tripoli pogrom, the 1946 Kielce pogrom and the 1947 Aleppo pogrom.

Pogroms against non-Jews include the 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom against Igbos in southern Nigeria; the 1988 Sumgait and Kirovabad pogroms, and the 1990 Baku pogrom in which ethnic Armenians were targeted.

Etymology[edit]

An early reference to a "pogrom" in The Times, December 1903. Together with the New York Times and the Hearst press, they took the lead in highlighting the pogrom in Kishinev (now Chişinău, Moldova) and other cities in Russia.[10] In May of the same year, The Times' Russian Correspondent Dudley Disraeli Braham had been expelled from Russia.[11]

The Russian word pogrom (погром), with stress on the second syllable, is a noun derived from the verb gromit (громи́ть) meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently".[12] It is used in English and many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed via Yiddish (where the word takes the form פאָגראָם pogrom).[13] Its widespread international currency began with the anti-Semitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881–1883,[14] partly through the writings of Irish journalist Michael Davitt in his coverage of the Kishinev pogrom.[citation needed]

Original pogroms[edit]

During the Civil War period in Ukraine[edit]

Many pogroms accompanied the post-1917 period of the Russian Civil War: an estimated 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews were killed throughout the former Russian Empire; the number of Jewish orphans exceeded 300,000. In his book 200 Years Together, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn[unreliable source?] provides these numbers from Nahum Gergel's 1951 study of the pogroms in Ukraine: out of an estimated 1,236 incidents of anti-Jewish violence, 887 mass pogroms occurred, the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming mass proportions. Of the pogroms, about 40% were perpetrated by the Ukrainian People's Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25% by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian nationalist gangs, 17% by the White Army, especially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5% of Gergel's total figure is attributed to pogroms carried out by men of the Red Army – although these pogroms were not sanctioned by the Red Army leadership, and where Red Army troops had perpetrated pogroms, the Bolshevik high command subsequently disarmed entire regiments and executed individual pogromists to deter further outbreaks.[15][16] The Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura did also issue orders condemning pogroms and attempted to investigate them.[17] But it lacked authority to stop violence.[17] In the last months of its existence it lacked any power of creating social stability.[18]

There were exceptions, however, as related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin. On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary,

"Members of the Red Army in Odessa led a pogrom against the Jews in the town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and the writer Kipen happened to be there and told me the details. Fourteen comissars and thirty Jews from among the common people were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The soldiers tore through the night, dragged the victims from their beds, and killed whomever they met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into the sea. They were chased after and fired upon – a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared 'Are there any Jews here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!' The watchman swore, and they went on farther. Moisei Gutman, a cabby, was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall."[19]

Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-yidish historiche arkhiv, which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York. The English version of Gergel's article was published in English in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms in the Ukraine in 1918–1921"[20]

Outside Russia[edit]

Pogroms spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Seventy-two Jews were killed and 443 injured by Polish troops, militia, and civilians in Poland in the 1918 Lwów pogrom.[21][22][23][24][25] The following year, pogroms were reported in several cities in Poland.[26]

Anti-Jewish riots also broke out elsewhere in the world. In the United Kingdom, in 1904, the Limerick Pogrom caused many Jews to leave the city. During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British army was called in by then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the riot as a "pogrom".[27] In the Americas, there was a pogrom in Argentina in 1919, during the Tragic Week.[28] In 1929, Jews were massacred in Hebron and Safed in Palestine.

Later and earlier pogroms[edit]

The first pogrom in Nazi Germany was Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps,[7] over 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.[8][9]

During World War II, the Nazis also encouraged pogroms by local populations, especially early in the war before the larger mass killings began, for two reasons: first, every Jew killed by locals meant one fewer that would have to be killed by the Germans, and second, the pogroms helped make the local populations share responsibility for the killings.[29] One pogrom took place on 8 October 1939, carried out by the local Germans on the occasion of Joseph Goebbels's visit to Lodz.[30]

A number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans. Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iaşi pogrom in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews were killed by Romanian citizens, police, and military officials.[31]

On 1–2 June 1941, the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq, in which "rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes".[32][33]

In the city of Lwow, some Ukrainian police along with occupying Nazis organized two large pogroms in June–July, 1941, in which around 6,000 Jews were murdered,[34] in alleged retribution for the collaboration of some Jews with the Soviet regime and the large number of communists who happened to be of Jewish descent (see The Lviv pogroms controversy (1941)).

In Lithuania, some Lithuanian police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and the Lithuanian partisans — consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army[35] engaged in anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25–26 June 1941 about 3,800 Jews were killed and synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.[36]

During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, some non-Jewish Poles burned at least 340 Jews in a barn-house (final findings of the Institute of National Remembrance) in the presence of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject of debate.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

After World War II[edit]

After the end of World War II, a series of violent anti-Semitic incidents occurred throughout Europe, particularly in the Soviet-liberated East, where most of the returning Jews came back after liberation by the Allied Powers, and where the Nazi propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy (see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946 and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946). Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in 1947.

In the Arab world, there were a number of pogroms which played a key role in the massive emigration from Arab countries to Israel. Anti-Jewish rioters killed over 140 Jews in the 1945 Tripoli pogrom; that same year, the 1945 Cairo pogrom marked the start of a series of violent acts against Egypt's Jews. In 1947, half of Aleppo's 10,000 Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo pogrom, while the Aden pogrom brought to an end the existence of Aden's almost two-thousand-year-old Jewish community. The 1948 Oujda and Jerada pogrom and 1954 Petitjean pogrom were pogroms in Morocco.[43]

The 1991 Crown Heights Riot in Brooklyn, New York has been referred to as a "pogrom" by persons such as Rudy Giuliani[44] and the New York Times columnist A. M. Rosenthal.[45]

Medieval[edit]

Plundering the Judengasse (= Jewish Street) in Frankfurt am Main on 22 August 1614. (See also File:1614jews.jpg.)

Massive violent attacks against Jews date back at least to the Crusades such as the Pogroms of 1096 in France and Germany (the first "Christian" pogroms to be officially recorded), as well as the massacres of Jews at London and York in 1189–1190.

During the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, beginning in the 9th century, Islamic Spain was more tolerant towards Jews.[46] In the 11th century, however, there were several Muslim pogroms against Jews; notably those that occurred in Córdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[47] In the 1066 Granada massacre, the first large pogrom on European soil, a Muslim mob crucified the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred about 4,000 Jews[48] In 1033 about 6,000 Jews were killed in Fez, Morocco, by Muslim mobs.[49][50] Mobs in Fez murdered thousands of Jews in 1276,[51] and again, leaving only 11 alive, in 1465.[51][52]

In Europe in 1348, because of the hysteria surrounding the Black Plague, Jews were massacred by Christians in Chillon, Basle, Stuttgart, Ulm, Speyer, Dresden, and Mainz. By 1351, 60 major and 150 smaller Jewish communities had been destroyed.[53] A large number of the surviving Jews fled to Poland, which was very welcoming to Jews at the time and remained a haven for displaced Jews until the Nazi conquest and purge.[54]

In 1506, after an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal,[55] in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.

In what is present-day Israel, the 1517 Safed pogrom had mass-murder, theft, and beatings against Jews.

Tens of thousands of Jews were massacred by Cossacks in Ukraine during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648–1657,[56] and thousands more during the Koliyivshchyna in 1768–1769.

In Morocco there was a pogrom in 1790 in Tetouan, started by sultan Yazid. The Jewish quarter was pillaged and many women raped.[57]

19th century[edit]

Pogroms against Jews known as the Hep-Hep riots began on August 2, 1819, in Würzburg, Germany and soon reached as far as regions of Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia. Many Jews were killed and much Jewish property was destroyed.[58]

The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the start of the nineteenth century wave of pogroms in the Russian empire, with further pogroms in Odessa (now in Ukraine) in 1859. However, the period 1881–1884 was a peak period, with over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa.

There were pogroms too in the nineteenth century in the Arab and Islamic worlds. There was a massacre of Jews in Baghdad in 1828.[59] There was another massacre in Barfurush in 1867.[59] In 1839, in the eastern Persian city of Meshed, a mob burst into the Jewish Quarter, burned the synagogue, and destroyed the Torah scrolls. This is known as the Allahdad incident. It was only by forcible conversion that a massacre was averted.[60]

In what is present-day Israel, the 1834 Safed pogrom, and 1838 Druze attack on Safed were mass-murders, theft, and beatings.

The Damascus affair occurred in 1840, when an Italian monk and his servant disappeared in Damascus. Immediately following, a charge of ritual murder was brought against a large number of Jews in the city. All were found guilty. The consuls of England, France and Austria as well as Ottoman authorities, Christians, Muslims and Jews all played a great role in this affair.[61]

Pogroms against non-Jews[edit]

Many events involving non-Jewish victims have attracted the title of pogrom by analogy. The Istanbul riots of September 6–7, 1955 (sometimes known as the "Istanbul pogrom") killed over a dozen people, and greatly accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey (Jews were also targeted in this event).[62][63] In the 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom Igbos in Nigeria were targeted, and the 1988 Sumgait and Kirovabad pogroms ethnic Armenians were the victims.

In 2008, two separate attacks in the West Bank by Israeli Jewish settlers on Palestinian Arabs were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of Israel, Ehud Olmert.[64][65]

Werner Bergmann[who?] suggests a particular unifying character for all these incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot (food riots, race riots, or 'communal riots' between evenly matched groups), and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism, terrorism, massacre and genocide".[66]

Usage[edit]

According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881",[2] and the Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states that pogroms "were antisemitic disturbances that periodically occurred within the tsarist empire."[3] However, the term is widely used to refer to many events which occurred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882 that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews."[4] Abramson wrote that "in mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism", since whilst "Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon ... historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence".[12]

The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as a defining characteristic of pogrom. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and occurring when the majority expect the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (perceived) threat from the minority,"[5] but adds that in western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained.[14] Historian David Engel supports this, writing that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but he offers that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms took place in societies significantly divided by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was committed by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land would not be used to stop them.[6]

There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom.[6][67] Klier writes that "when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features."[4] Use of the term to refer to events in 1918–19 in Polish cities including Kielce, Pinsk and Lwów was specifically avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report (preferring "excesses"), whose authors argued that the term pogrom was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone and required the situation to be antisemitic in nature rather than political,[6][68][69] and media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy.[70][71][72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amos Elon (2002), The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743–1933. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4. p. 103.
  2. ^ a b "Pogrom", Encyclopædia Britannica. "pogrom, (Russian: "devastation," or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries."
  3. ^ a b Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789, By Nicholas Atkin, Michael Biddiss, Frank Tallett
  4. ^ a b c John Klier (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58."By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life."
  5. ^ a b For this definition and a review of scholarly definitions see Wilhelm Heitmeyer and John Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp 352–55 online
  6. ^ a b c d Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal "No doubt many will contend that history suggests the need for a serious attempt to clarify what a pogrom is or is not. In the event, however, no such clarification is possible, for "pogrom" is not a pre-existing natural category but an abstraction created by human beings in order to divide complex and infinitely varies social phenomena into manageable units of analysis. As a result, in the absence of universal agreement concerning the specific behaviours to which the word refers or of some supreme authority to whom the power of definition has been delegated, there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label. "Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank, ... involved collective violent applications of force by members of what perpetrators believed to be a higher-ranking ethnic or religious group against members of what they considered a lower-ranking or subaltern group, ... appliers of the decisive force tended to interpret the behaviour of victims according to stereotypes commonly applied to the groups to which they belonged, ... perpetrators expressed some complaint about the victims' group, ... [and] a fundamental lack of confidence on the part of those who purveyed decisive violence in the adequacy of the impersonal rule of law to deliver true justice in the event of a heinous wrong."
  7. ^ a b "World War II: Before the War", The Atlantic, June 19, 2011. "Windows of shops owned by Jews which were broken during a coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as Kristallnacht, on Nov. 10, 1938. Nazi authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows. Ninety-one Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps.
  8. ^ a b Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer (2005). The World Must Know. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 49.
  9. ^ a b Gilbert, pp. 30–33.
  10. ^ Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood: H.N. Bialik in His Time, a Literary Biography, Sara Feinstein, p12
  11. ^ Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom, Edward H. Judge, p99
  12. ^ a b A prayer for the government: Ukrainians and Jews in revolutionary times, 1917–1920, Henry Abramson "The etymological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for "thunder(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy (thunderbolt) directed at a specific target. A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two. Early instances of this phenomenon in the Russian Empire were described using various terms (here in Russian): demonstratsii, gonenie, draky, besporiadki (demonstrations, persecution, fights, riots). Pogrom, however, has been the most effective in entering European languages, perhaps through Yiddish usage. Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon, but historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence. In mainstream usage, the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism."
  13. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Dec. 2007 revision.
  14. ^ a b International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) "The word "pogrom" (from the Russian, meaning storm or devastation) has a relatively short history. Its international currency dates back to the anti-Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years 1881–1883, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a much earlier date and was by no means confined to Russia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article "The pogrom paradigm in Russian history", the anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the government made use of the term besporiadok (unrest, riot) to emphasize the breach of public order. Then, during the twentieth century, the term began to develop along two separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary forms of political unrest and, from 1989, for outbreaks of interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic overtones were retained and government orchestration or acquiescence was emphasized."
  15. ^ Nora Levin The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival NYU Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8147-5051-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3, p.43
  16. ^ "Pogroms". The Jewish Virtual Library. 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
  17. ^ a b Serhy Yekelchyk, Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation, Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3
  18. ^ History of Ukraine - The Land and Its Peoples by Paul Robert Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, 2010, ISBN 1-4426-4085-5 (page 537)
  19. ^ Ivan Bunin, Cursed Days: A Diary of Revolution, May 2/15, 1919. Page 141.
  20. ^ Henry Abramson, Jewish Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917–1920, Slavic review, Vol. 50, No. 3 (Fall, 1991), pp. 542–550
  21. ^ Joanna B. Michlic (2006). Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present. University of Nebraska Press. p. 111. "One of the first and worst instances of anti-Jewish violence was Lwow pogrom, which occurred in the last week of November 1918. In three days 72 Jews were murdered and 443 others injured. The chief perpetrators of these murders were soldiers and officers of the so-called Blue Army, set up in France in 1917 by General Jozef Haller (1893–1960) and lawless civilians".
  22. ^ Herbert Arthur Strauss (1993). Hostages of Modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism, 1870–1933/39. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048. "In Lwow, a city whose fate was disputed, the Jews tried to maintain their neutrality between Poles and Ukrainians, and in reaction a pogrom was held in the city under auspices of the Polish army"
  23. ^ Gilman, Sander L.; Milton Shain (1999). Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict. University of Illinois Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-252-06792-4,. OCLC 9780252067921. "After the end of the fighting and as a result of the Polish victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian population started a pogrom against the Jewish inhabitants. Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews had sympathized with the Ukrainian position during the conflicts" 
  24. ^ Marsha L. Rozenblit (2001). Reconstructing a National Identity: The Jews of Habsburg Austria During World War I. Oxford University Press. p. 137. "The largest pogrom occurred in Lemberg. Polish soldiers led an attack on the Jewish quarter of the city on November 21–23, 1918 that claimed 73 Jewish lives".
  25. ^ Zvi Y. Gitelman (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 58. "In November 1918, Polish soldiers who had taken Lwow (Lviv) from the Ukrainians killed more than seventy Jews in a pogrom there, burning synagogues, destroying Jewish property, and leaving hundreds of Jewish families homeless."
  26. ^ Tobenkin, Elias (1919-06-01). "Jewish Poland and its Red Reign of Terror". New York Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  27. ^ Neil Prior. "History debate over anti-Semitism in 1911 Tredegar riot". BBC News, 19 August 2011.
  28. ^ "Tragic Week Summary". BookRags.com. 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  29. ^ Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-29879-0
  30. ^ "Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team" "" The Lodz Ghetto, 1940–1944
  31. ^ Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (RICHR) submitted to President Ion Iliescu in Bucharest on 11 November 2004.
  32. ^ "The Farhud", Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  33. ^ Julia Magnet. "The terror behind Iraq's Jewish exodus", The Daily Telegraph, April 16, 2003.
  34. ^ Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv.
  35. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3, Google Print, p.164.
  36. ^ "Holocaust Revealed". www.holocaustrevealed.org. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  37. ^ http://www.ipn.gov.pl/portal.php?serwis=en&dzial=55&id=131&search=5667
  38. ^ A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003.
  39. ^ Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press – Publisher; pp. 67–68.
  40. ^ Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO – Publisher; p. 366.
  41. ^ Alexander B. Rossino, Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003).
  42. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland", Penguin Books, Princeton University Press, 2002.
  43. ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (Ed.) 2007. The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History.
  44. ^ "Mayor race focuses on word" By JAMES C. McKINLEY Jr, The New York Times, June 1, 1993, accessed August 16, 2011, page 1.
  45. ^ "On My Mind; Pogrom in Brooklyn" by A. M. ROSENTHAL, The New York Times, September 3, 1991, accessed August 16, 2011, page 1.
  46. ^ Menocal, María Rosa (April 2003). The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-16871-8 
  47. ^ Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry., Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, pp. 267–268.
  48. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  49. ^ Moroccan Jews.
  50. ^ The Forgotten Refugees – Historical Timeline.
  51. ^ a b N.A. Stillman. 1978. The Moroccan Jewish experience: a revisionist view. Jerusalem Quarterly 9: 111–123
  52. ^ The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
  53. ^ "Jewish History 1340 – 1349".
  54. ^ Norman Davies (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 412. ISBN 0-19-820171-0. 
  55. ^ "Portugal". Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  56. ^ Orest Subtelny, Ukraine: A History, 1988, pp. 127–128.
  57. ^ Norman A. Stilman (1979) The Jews of Arab Lands. A History and Source Book.
  58. ^ Elon, Amos (2002). The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743–1933. Metropolitan Books. pp. 102–105. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4. 
  59. ^ a b Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. Vintage Books, 2001, pp. 10–11.
  60. ^ Patai, Raphael (1997). Jadid al-Islam: The Jewish "New Muslims" of Meshhed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2652-8. 
  61. ^ Frankel, Jonathan: The Damascus Affair: 'Ritual Murder', Politics, and the Jews in 1840 (Cambridge University Press, 1997) ISBN 0-521-48396-4 p.1
  62. ^ Steven K. Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism Explained. University Press of America. 2011. p. 174.
  63. ^ "Istanbul love story". The Post and Courier. April 10, 2011.
  64. ^ Settlers attack Palestinian village
  65. ^ Olmert condemns settler "pogrom"
  66. ^ Heitmeyer and Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 pp 352–55
  67. ^ Bergmann writes that "the concept of "ethnic violence" covers a range of heterogeneous phenomena, and in many cases there are still no established theoretical and conceptual distinctions in the field (Waldmann, 1995:343)" Bergmann then goes on to set out a variety of conflicting scholarly views on the definition and usage of the term pogrom.
  68. ^ Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration With Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947, Tadeusz Piotrowski
  69. ^ Neal Pease. "'This Troublesome Question': The United States and the 'Polish Pogroms' of 1918–1919." In: Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page 60. Ideology, Politics, and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. Boydell & Brewer, 2003, p.72
  70. ^ The Jewish Week, August 9, 2011
  71. ^ New York Magazine 9 Sep 1991
  72. ^ Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race War That Wasn't, Carol B. Conaway, Polity, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 93–118

Further reading[edit]

  • Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, The myth of the Jewish world conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. (Serif, London, 1996)[1]
  • Dekel-Chen, Jonathan, et al. eds. Anti-Jewish Violence: Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History (Indiana University Press; 2011) 220 pages; scholars examine pogroms of the late 1800s and early 1900s in Poland, Ukraine, Belorussia, Lithuania, Crimea, and Siberia.
  • Horvitz, Leslie, and Christopher Catherwood, eds. Encyclopedia of War Crimes And Genocide (Facts on File Library of World History, 2006)
  • Shelton, Dinah, ed. Encyclopedia of genocide and crimes against humanity (Macmillan Reference, 3 vol. 2005)
  • Thackrah, John, ed. Encyclopedia of terrorism and political violence (1987)