From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ville de Montréal
The skyline of Montreal viewed from the Jacques Cartier Bridge
The skyline of Montreal viewed from the Jacques Cartier Bridge
Flag of Montreal
Coat of arms of Montreal
Coat of arms
Official logo of Montreal
Motto: Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
Coordinates: 45°30′N 73°34′W / 45.500°N 73.567°W / 45.500; -73.567Coordinates: 45°30′N 73°34′W / 45.500°N 73.567°W / 45.500; -73.567
Country Canada
Province Quebec
Region Montreal
RCM None
Founded 17 May 1642
Constituted January 1, 2002
 • Type Montreal City Council
 • Mayor Denis Coderre
 • Prov. riding
 • City 431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)
 • Land 365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)
 • Urban[3] 1,545.30 km2 (596.64 sq mi)
 • Metro[4] 4,258.31 km2 (1,644.14 sq mi)
Highest elevation 233 m (764 ft)
Lowest elevation 6 m (20 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 1,649,519
 • Density 4,517.6/km2 (11,701/sq mi)
 • Urban[3] 3,407,963
 • Urban density 2,205.4/km2 (5,712/sq mi)
 • Metro[4] 3,824,221 (2nd)
 • Metro density 898.1/km2 (2,326/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Increase 1.8%
 • Dwellings 813,819
Demonym Montrealer
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s) H (except H7 for Laval)
Area code(s) 514 and 438

Montreal (Listeni/ˌmʌntrˈɒl/;[5] French: Montréal,[6] pronounced: [mɔ̃ʁeal] ( )) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec. It is the largest city in the province, the second-largest in Canada and the 15-largest in North America. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[7] it is named after Mount Royal,[8] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city,[9][10] and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard.

In 2011 the city had a population of 1,649,519.[2] Montreal's metropolitan area (CMA) (land area 4,259 square kilometres (1,644 sq mi)) had a population of 3,824,221[4] and a population of 1,886,481 in the urban agglomeration, all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included.[11]

French is the city's official language[12][13] and is the language spoken at home, as Québécois French, by 56.9% of the population of the city, followed by English at 18.6% and 19.8% other languages (in the 2006 census).[14] In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 67.9% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 16.5% who speak English.[15] 56% of the population are able to speak both English and French, making Montreal one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada.[16] Montreal is the second largest primarily French-speaking city in the world, after Paris.[17][18][19] [20]

Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design.[21][22] Historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, gaming, film and world affairs.[23]

In 2009, Montreal was named North America's leading host city for international association events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA).[24] In 2012, QS World University Rankings ranked Montreal the 10th-best place in the world to be a university student.[25]


Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[7] it is named after Mount Royal,[8] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal, as it was spelled in Middle French (Mont Royal in modern French), but Cartier's 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, refers to "le mont Royal". Another argument, mentioned by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, "Monte Real".[26]


Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago.[27] By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.[28] The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, a people distinct from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee then based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century.[29] The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people".[29]

Seventy years later, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed due to outmigration, epidemic of European diseases, or intertribal wars.[29][30] In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site initially named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Rivière and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands.[31] In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve was the governor of the colony, which was established on May 17, 1642.[32] In 1689, the English–allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France.[33]

Ville-Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further French exploration.[32] By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. To encourage French settlement, they wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. They had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became Kanesatake.[34] In 1745 several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as Akwesasne. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when it was surrendered to Great Britain after the Seven Years War.[35]

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832.[36] The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids,[37] while the construction of the Victoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the Golden Square Mile from about 1850. By 1860, it was the largest municipality in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada.[38][39]

The Montreal Harbour in 1889.

Montreal was the capital of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a Tory mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill.[40] For strategic reasons, the government established Ottawa as the capital, as it was located more in the interior of the nation.

Saint Jacques Street (formerly St. James Street), in 1910

After World War I, the Prohibition movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for alcohol.[41] Unemployment remained high in the city, and was exacerbated by the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.[42]

During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women.[43] The government at Ottawa was furious over Houde's stand and held him at a prison camp until 1944.[44] That year the government decided to institute conscription to be able to expand the armed forces. (see Conscription Crisis of 1944).[43]

By 1951, Montreal's population had surpassed one million.[45] The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. In time this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas.[46] During the 1960s there was continued growth, including the World's Fair known as Expo 67, and the construction of Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the Montreal Metro.

The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the French-speaking majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the English-Canadian minority in the business arena.[47] The October Crisis and the 1976 election of the Parti Québécois, supporting sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city.[48] In 1976, Montreal was the host of the Olympics.[49] During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities.

Montreal was merged with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creatingd a unified city covering the entire island. There was great resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Several former municipalities, totaling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separate referendums in June 2004. The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. De-merged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services.[50]

The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (both of which[clarification needed] are the largest in Canada), the creation of the Quartier des Spectacles, reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, gentrification of Griffintown, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion of Montreal-Trudeau International Airport, the completion of Quebec Autoroute 30, and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal move into the 21st century.


Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic.[51] Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south, the Rivière des Prairies to its north. The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at 232 m above sea level.[52]

Montreal is at the centre of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north, Longueuil, Saint-Lambert, Brossard, and other municipalities to the south, Repentigny to the east and the West Island municipalities to the west. The anglophone enclaves of Westmount, Montreal West, Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc, the Town of Mount Royal and the francophone enclave Montreal East are all surrounded by Montreal.[53]


Bonsecours Market in autumn.

Montreal lies on a transitional climate zone between the hot-summer humid continental and the warm-summer humid continental (Köppen climate classification: Dfa/Dfb due to the mean temperature in July being just above 22 °C (72 °F)),[54][55]

Summers are on the whole humid, during the day ranging from warm to hot, with a daily average of 21 to 22 °C (70 to 72 °F) in July; temperatures in excess of 30 °C (86 °F) occur often. Conversely, cool fronts can bring crisp, less humid and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer.

Winter usually brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from −9 to −10 °C (16 to 14 °F) in January. However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March.[citation needed] On average, there are 8.2 nights below −20 °C (−4 °F), and while the air temperature does not fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) every year,[citation needed] the wind chill often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin.

Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall.[56] Whereas April tends to be tranquil and sunny much of the time, in May there is a noticeable increase in humidity and thundery rainshowers. Late season heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are possible. Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April.

The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was −37.8 °C (−36 °F) on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was 37.6 °C (100 °F) on August 1, 1975, both at Dorval International Airport.[57]

Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill[58]), a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7am on January 10, 1859, where it registered at −42 °C (−44 °F).[59]

Annual precipitation is around 980 mm (39 in), including an average of about 225 cm (89 in) of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal averages 2,029 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation.[60]

Climate data for Montreal (McGill)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.8
Average high °C (°F) −5.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.9
Average low °C (°F) −12.4
Record low °C (°F) −33.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 73.6
Rainfall mm (inches) 28.4
Snowfall cm (inches) 45.9
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.8 12.8 13.6 12.5 12.9 13.8 12.3 13.4 12.7 13.1 15.0 16.2 163.9
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.3 4.0 7.4 10.9 12.8 13.8 12.3 13.4 12.7 12.7 11.5 6.5 122.2
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 13.6 11.1 8.3 3.0 0.14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.62 5.3 12.0 53.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.2 119.5 158.8 181.7 229.8 250.1 271.6 230.7 174.1 138.6 80.4 80.7 2,015.2
Source: Environment Canada (sun 1961–1990)[60][61]


Place Jacques Cartier
View of the Basilica from Place d'Armes
Italianate, 2nd Empire Homes on Saint Louis Square in Le Plateau-Mont-Royal.

For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada.[62] The variety of buildings included factories, elevators, warehouses, mills, and refineries which today provide a legacy of historic and architectural interest, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. There are 50 National Historic Sites of Canada, more than any other city.[63]

Olympic Stadium, seen next to the Montreal Botanical Garden.

There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal still in their original form: Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Bonsecours Market, and the impressive 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Saint Joseph's Oratory, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's Art Deco Université de Montréal main building, the landmark Place Ville Marie office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of 20th-century architecture.

Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including the geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex.

The Montreal Metro has public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture.

In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, only one of three design capitals of the world (the others being Berlin and Buenos Aires).[21] This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda);[64] the International Design Alliance (IDA).[65]

The Underground City (officially RÉSO or La Ville Souterraine in French) is the set of interconnected complexes (both above and below ground) in and around Downtown.


The city is composed of 19 large boroughs, subdivided into neighbourhoods.[66] The boroughs are Ahuntsic-Cartierville, Anjou, Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, Lachine, LaSalle, Le Plateau-Mont-Royal, Le Sud-Ouest, L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Montréal-Nord, Outremont, Pierrefonds-Roxboro, Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles, Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie, Saint-Laurent, Saint-Leonard, Verdun, Ville-Marie and Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension. Many of these boroughs were previously independent cities that merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 Municipal Reorganization of Montreal.

The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville-Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal, Chinatown, the Gay Village, the Latin Quarter, the recently gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is currently under development. Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the Shaughnessy Village/Quartier Concordia area home to thousands of students at Concordia University. The borough also comprises most of Mount Royal Park, Saint Helen's Island, and Île Notre-Dame.

The Plateau Mont-Royal borough has historically been a working-class francophone area. The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is currently undergoing considerable gentrification,[67] and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force.[68] The neighbourhood of Mile End in the northwestern part of the borough, has historically been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments, St-Viateur Bagel and Fairmount Bagel. The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members.

The Sud-Ouest borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. The borough historically included Goose Village and is home to the traditionally working-class Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Pointe-Saint-Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint-Henri and Little Burgundy.

Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce borough, and Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.

Old Montreal[edit]

Old Montreal (French: Vieux-Montréal) is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the Bonsecours Market, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre.

Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored and are frequented by horse-drawn calèches carrying tourists. Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city and is served by several STM bus routes and metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths.

The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. The Old Port was the former site of the worldwide Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved further east to its current larger site, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. The new Port of Montreal is now Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth.[69]

Mount Royal[edit]

Beaver Lake on Mount Royal.

The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park (French: Parc du Mont-Royal), one of Montreal's largest greenspaces. The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876.[70]

The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet, overlooking Downtown Montreal. Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short ski slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities.

The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165 acres (67 ha) terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic.[71] More than 900,000 people are buried there.[72]

Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. In 1901 the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada.[73]

The first cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood.[70] Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste and now owned by the city.[70] It was converted to fibre-optic light in 1992.[70] The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next.[74]


Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1871 141,276 —    
1881 189,168 +33.9%
1891 271,352 +43.4%
1901 347,817 +28.2%
1911 533,341 +53.3%
1921 693,225 +30.0%
1931 959,198 +38.4%
1941 1,064,653 +11.0%
1951 1,247,647 +17.2%
1956 1,402,704 +12.4%
1961 1,607,601 +14.6%
1966 1,750,969 +8.9%
1971 1,765,553 +0.8%
1976 1,664,527 −5.7%
1981 1,554,761 −6.6%
1986 1,541,251 −0.9%
1991 1,553,356 +0.8%
1996 1,550,369 −0.2%
2001 1,583,590 +2.1%
2006 1,620,639 +2.3%
2011 1,649,519 +1.8%
Based on current city limits.
Source: [75][76]

According to Statistics Canada, at the 2006 Canadian census the city had 1,620,693 inhabitants.[77] A total of 3,635,571 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2006 census, up from 3,451,027 at the 2001 census (within 2006 CMA boundaries), which means a population growth of +1.05% per year between 2001 and 2006.[78] In the 2006 census, children under 14 years of age (621,695) constituted 17.1%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (495,685) numbered 13.6% of the total population.[77]

People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French 23%, Italians 10%, Irish 5%, English 4%, Scottish 3%, and Spanish 2%.[79] Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group,[80] up from 5.2% in 1981.[81]

Visible minorities comprised 31.7% of the population in the 2011 census. The five most numerous visible minorities are Blacks (9.1%), Arabs (6.4%), Latin Americans (4.2%), South Asians (3.3%), and Chinese (2.9%).[82] Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour."[83]

According to a recently published report by the city, the island is expected to number 1,991,200 by 2012, with 3.9 million in the Greater Montreal Area, an increase of 15.8% over 2001. However, in 2009, the Greater Montreal Area is estimated to number 3.86 million people, suggesting that the area surpass the four million threshold by 2012.[84] According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities.[85]

In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language.[86] The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.5%).[86] In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents.

The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic, however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada.[87] Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Some 84.6% of the total population is Christian,[88] largely Roman Catholic (74.5%), primarily due to descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins.

Protestants which include Anglican, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 7.0%, with a further 3.0% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There are also a number of Russian Orthodox parishes.

Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 100,185 members,[88] the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 88,765.[88] In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority,[89][90] or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480. The Jewish community includes a sizable number of Orthodox and Hasidic Jews. Also present, is a small Chabad community, numbering around 1,590. persons. The Chabad community is unique in that it contains a noticeable mixture of Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews.[91]


Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP[92] and the largest in Quebec.[93] The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange.

Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs.[94]

The Port of Montreal is the largest inland port in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.[95] As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a trans-shipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway,[96] and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995.[97]

Place Ville Marie, the RBC headquarters in Montreal, Quebec

The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal.[98] Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body);[99] the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body);[100] the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World);[101] the International Air Transport Association (IATA),[102] IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC),[103] as well as some other international organizations in various fields.

The Montreal World Trade Centre west entrance on Victoria Square.

Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations.[104][105] The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, Montreal World Film Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil.[106]

The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal.[107] Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as Ubisoft Montreal, EA, Eidos Interactive, Bioware, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labor, and tax credits offered to the corprations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio.[108] Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs.

Air Canada Centre (French: Centre Air Canada), the headquarters of Air Canada

Montreal played an important role in the finance industry. The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada.

Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan,[109] Desjardins Group, Bombardier Inc.,[110] Canadian National Railway,[111] CGI Group,[112] Air Canada,[113] Air Transat,[114] CAE,[115] Saputo,[116] Cirque du Soleil, Quebecor,[117] Ultramar, Jean Coutu Group,[118] Uniprix,[119] Proxim,[120] Domtar, Le Chateau,[121] Power Corporation, Bell Canada.[122] Standard Life,[123] Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson,[124] Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin,[125] MEGA Brands,[126] Aeroplan,[127] Agropur,[128] Metro Inc., Astral Media,[129] Laurentian Bank of Canada,[130] National Bank of Canada,[131] Transat A.T.,[132] VIA Rail,[133] Novacam Technologies, INetVideo, Dollarama, Rona,[134] AXA Canada, and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. Montreal had a GDP of C$145 billion (US$148 billion) in 2008, placing it 41st city in the world.[92]

The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Shell has decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada.


Place d'Armes in Montreal, historic heart of French Canada

Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle magazine.[22] The city is Canada's centre for French language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture.

As a North American city, Montreal shares many cultural characteristics with the rest of the continent. It has a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. The city has also produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, music, and dance. Yet, being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the animation of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, particularly festivals. The city's largest festival is the Just for Laughs comedy festival, which is the largest in the world of its kind. Other popular festivals include the Montreal International Jazz Festival, Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique, Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival.

Saint Joseph's Oratory is the largest church in Canada.

A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard, La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo, and the Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil.

Nicknamed la ville aux cent clochers (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. As Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window."[135] The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.[136]


The Montreal Canadiens play the visiting Boston Bruins at the Bell Centre.

The most popular sport is ice hockey. The professional hockey team, the Montreal Canadiens, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and boast an NHL-record 24 Stanley Cup championships. The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993. They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins both of which are also Original Six hockey teams.

The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Molson Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Late season and playoff games are played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also played host to the 2008 Grey Cup. The Alouettes won the Grey Cup a total of 7 times, most recently in 2010. The McGill Redmen, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Carabins play in the CIS university football league.

Montreal has a storied baseball history. The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. In 1946, Jackie Robinson broke the baseball colour barrier with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support.[137] Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. They played their games at Jarry Park until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C. in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals.[138]

Olympic Stadium in Montreal, featuring the tallest leaning tower in the world at 175.5 metres (575.8 ft)

The Montreal Impact are the city's professional soccer team. They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. They recently joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer in 2012. The Montreal games of the FIFA 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium.[139]

Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. This race takes place on the famous Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans,[140] but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula 1 calendar in 2010. The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002–2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race.

Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the Rogers Cup men's and women's tennis tournaments. The men's tournament is a Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a Premier tournament on the WTA Tour. The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year.[141]

Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium cost $1.5 billion;[142] with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was only paid off in December 2006.[143] Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities.

Montreal will be the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014.

Active professional sports teams in Montreal
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Montreal Canadiens NHL Ice hockey Bell Centre 1909 24
Montreal Alouettes CFL Football Percival Molson Memorial Stadium
Olympic Stadium
1946 7
Montreal Impact MLS Soccer Saputo Stadium 1992 0
Montreal Jazz NBL Canada Basketball Centre Pierre Charbonneau 2012 0
Montreal Stars Canadian Women's Hockey League Ice hockey Centre Étienne Desmarteau 2007 2
Quebec Caribou RCSL Rugby union Dollard-des-Ormeaux 1998 0
Quebec Saints AFL Quebec Australian rules football Vanier College 2008 2
Montreal Blitz IWFL Football Dalbé Viau High School 2002 2
Montreal Royal AUDL Ultimate Frisbee Percival Molson Stadium 2014 0
Casino de Montréal


Montreal is well served by media, including French and English television stations, newspapers, radio stations, and magazines. There are four over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV), CKMI-DT (Global) and CJNT-DT (City). There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA), CFJP-DT (V), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir).

Montreal has four daily newspapers, the English-language Montreal Gazette and the French-language La Presse, Le Journal de Montréal and Le Devoir. There are two free French dailies, Métro and 24 Heures. Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools.


The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the City Council. Gérald Tremblay, who is a member of the Union Montréal party, resigned as mayor on November 5, 2012.[144] The office of acting mayor was held by city councillor Jane Cowell-Poitras[145] until November 16, when Michael Applebaum was selected as the new mayor.[146] Applebaum resigned on June 18, 2013[147] and Cowell-Poitras again assumed the office of acting mayor until the selection of Laurent Blanchard.[148]

The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. The Council consists of 65 members from all boroughs.[149] The Council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The Council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils.

Reporting directly to the Council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the Council for approval. The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the City Council.

Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period. The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee.

The city is only one component of the larger Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal (English: Montreal Metropolitan Community or MMC), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers 4,360 square kilometres (1,680 sq mi), with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006.[150]

Montreal is the seat of the judicial district of Montreal, which includes the City and the other communities on the island.[151]


McGill University, Arts Building

With four universities, seven other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents).[152]

Higher Education (English)

Higher Education (French)

Université de Montréal, Roger-Gaudry building.

Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Also, l'Institut de pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university center of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering a Bachelor and a Master's degrees in Theology.

The education system in the province of Quebec is slightly different from other systems in North America. Between the high school and university levels, there is an additional college level called CEGEP. It is at the same time a preparatory school (preparing students for admission to university) and a technical school (offering courses which lead to technical diplomas and specializations). In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English.

English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board[157] and the Lester B. Pearson School Board.[158] French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Commission scolaire de Montréal (CSDM),[159] Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys (CSMB)[160] and the Commission scolaire Pointe-de-l'Île (CSPI).[161]


Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion, especially from cities in the west island such as Pointe-Claire and Beaconsfield, and off-island suburbs such as Laval on Île Jésus, and Longueuil on the south shore. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are only four road bridges along with one road tunnel, two railway bridges, and a metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by eight road bridges (six to Laval and two directly to the north shore) and a metro line.

The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520, and A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour.[162] However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass.[163]

Société de transport de Montréal (STM)[edit]

One of the entrances to the Square-Victoria metro station looks like a Paris Métro station. This original Hector Guimard gate was a gift from the city of Paris.
An STM Novabus operating on Route 80

Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). The STM bus network consists of 197 daytime and 20 nighttime routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010.[164] It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses.[165] The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize.

The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines.[166] It is Canada's busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010).[164] Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most.[167] The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and has recently been extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations.[168]

The commuter rail system is managed and operated by the Agence métropolitaine de transport, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal. It carried 15.7 million passengers in 2007, making it the sixth busiest in North America following New York City, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, and Toronto.[169]


Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada[170] and Air Transat.[171] To the north of the city is Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services.[172][173][174][175][176] In 2013, Montreal-Trudeau was the fourth busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and by aircraft movements, behind Toronto Pearson, Vancouver and Calgary, handling 14.09 million passengers in 2013,[177][178][179] and 207,882 aircraft movements in 2011.[180] With 60.8% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport.[181] Trudeau airport is served by 40 carriers to over 100 destinations worldwide.[182]

Airlines servicing Trudeau offer flights to Europe, the United States, Western Asia, the Middle East, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Mexico and other destinations within Canada and it contains the largest duty-free shop in North America.[183]


The Agence métropolitaine de transport runs commuter trains serving Greater Montreal such as this one on the Vaudreuil-Hudson Line.

Montreal-based VIA Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York City. All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station.

Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881.[184] Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995.[97] With the Port of Montreal kept open year round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus.[185] CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway to Halifax, and CN Rail. The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to VIA Rail Canada and the Canadian terminates in Toronto.

Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed during in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada.[186] Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada.[187]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Montreal has sister cities:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Geographic code 66023 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
  2. ^ a b c "(Code 2466023) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "(Code 0547) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c "(Code 462) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. 
  5. ^ /ˌmʌntrˈɒl/ is the local English pronunciation. Elsewhere it tends to be /ˌmʌntriˈɔːl/ or /ˌmɒntriˈɔːl/.
  6. ^ It is most common to omit the acute accent in English-language usage (Montreal), unless using a proper name where the context requires the use of the accent (e.g., Université de Montréal, Le Journal de Montréal, as compared to the Montreal Gazette), and to keep the accent in French-language usage (Montréal). This is also the approach favoured by The Canadian Press Style Book (ISBN 0-920009-32-8, at p. 234) and The Globe and Mail Style Book (ISBN 0-7710-5685-0, at p. 249). According to The Canadian Style (ISBN 1-55002-276-8, at pp. 263–4), the official style guide of the government of Canada, the name of the city is to be written with an accent in all government materials.
  7. ^ a b "Old Montréal / Centuries of History". April 2000. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  8. ^ a b "Mount Royal Park – Montreal's Mount Royal Park or Parc du Mont-Royal". Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Island of Montreal". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved February 7, 2008. 
  10. ^ Poirier, Jean (1979). "Commission de toponymie du Québec". Île de Montréal 5 (1). Quebec: Canoma. pp. 6–8 
  11. ^ "(Code 2466) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. 
  12. ^ Chapter 1, article 1, "Charte de la Ville de Montréal" (in French). 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  13. ^ Chapter 1, article 1, "Charter of Ville de Montréal". 2008. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Population by language spoken most often at home and age groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Table 22.4 Language spoken most often at home, by census metropolitan area, 2006". Statistics Canada. October 27, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  16. ^ Fouron, Farah (2006). "Annuaire Statistique de l'Agglomération de Montréal". Ville de Montréal. p. 94. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  17. ^ Discovering Canada (official Canadian citizenship test study guide)
  18. ^ "LIVING IN CANADA: MONTREAL, QUEBEC". Abrams & Krochak – Canadian Immigration Lawyers. Retrieved November 4, 2009. 
  19. ^ Roussopoulos, Dimitrios; Benello, C. George, eds. (2005). Participatory Democracy: Prospects for Democratizing Democracy. Montreal; New York: Black Rose Books. p. 292. ISBN 1-55164-224-7,1551642255 (paperback) Check |isbn= value (help). Retrieved June 5, 2009.  Quote: Montreal "is second only to Paris as the largest primarily French-speaking city in the world".
  20. ^ Kinshasa and Abidjan are sometimes said to rank ahead of Montreal as francophone cities, since they have larger populations and are in countries with French as sole official language. However, French is uncommon as a mother tongue there. According to Ethnologue, there were 17,500 mother-tongue speakers of French in the Ivory Coast as of 1988. [1] Approximately 10% of the population of Congo-Kinshasa knows French to some extent. [2]
  21. ^ a b "Montreal, Canada appointed a UNESCO City of Design". UNESCO. June 7, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Wingrove, Josh (June 9, 2008). "Vancouver and Montreal among 25 most livable cities". Globe and Mail (Canada). Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  23. ^ "City of Toronto, History Resources". City of Toronto. October 23, 2000. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Montréal 2025 | News | Montréal, top international convention host city in North America". Montréal 2025. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  25. ^ Montreal ranked 10th-best place in world to be a university student, Montreal Gazette, Sept. 20, 2012.
  26. ^ "Natural Resources Canada, Origins of Geographical Names: Island of Montréal.". 
  27. ^ Centre d'histoire de Montréal. Le Montréal des Premières Nations. 2011. P. 15.
  28. ^ "Place Royale and the Amerindian presence". Société de développement de Montréal. September 2001. Retrieved March 9, 2007. 
  29. ^ a b c Tremblay, Roland (2006). The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians. Corn People. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Les Éditions de l'Homme. 
  30. ^ Bruce G. Trigger, "The Disappearance of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians", in The Children of Aataenstic: A History of the Huron People to 1660, vol. 2], Montreal and London: Mcgill-Queen's University Press, 1976, pp. 214–218, accessed Feb 2, 2010
  31. ^ Marsan, Jean-Claude (1990). Montreal in evolution. An historical analysis of the development of Montreal's architecture. Montréal, Qc: Les Éditions de l'Homme. 
  32. ^ a b Miquelon, Dale. "Ville-Marie (Colony)". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  33. ^ Beacock Fryer, Mary (1986). Battlefields of Canada. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 1-55002-007-2. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Alanis Obomsawin, Kanesatake: 270 Years of Resistance, National Film Board of Canada, 1993, accessed Jan 30, 2010". National Film Board of Canada. February 5, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Articles of the Capitulation of Montréal, 1760". MSN Encarta. 1760. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Montreal :: Government". Student's Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Lachine Canal National Historic Site of Canada" (PDF). Parks Canada. p. 3. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Visiting Montréal, Canada". International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  39. ^ "UNA-Canada: A Sense of Belonging". United Nations Association in Canada. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Walking Tour of Old Montreal". Vehicule Press. Retrieved January 30, 2008. 
  41. ^ Arnold, Kathy (June 3, 2008). "Montreal: a thrilling collision of cultures". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  42. ^ "DEPRESSION AND WAR 1930–1945". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b "Conscription for Wartime Service". Mount Allison University. 2001. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Camillien Houde". City of Montreal. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  45. ^ "THE EMERGENCE OF A MODERN CITY 1945–1960". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  46. ^ Veltman, Calvin (1996). Post-imperial English. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 206. ISBN 978-3-11-014754-4. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  47. ^ "A new francophone conquest". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  48. ^ Bowen, Arabella; John Shandy Watson (2001-2004). "The Ongoing Threat of Separatism". The Rough Guide to Montreal (Rough Guides). p. 272. ISBN 978-1-84353-195-1. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Montreal 1976". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Agglomeration council". Ville de Montréal. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  51. ^ "The St. Lawrence River". Great Canadian Rivers. 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  52. ^ "Island of Montreal". Geographical Names of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. September 17, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  53. ^ "Découpage du territoire montréalais en 2006" (PDF). Montréal en statistiques (in French). Ville de Montréal. 2006. Archived from the original on February 15, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  54. ^ "Climatic Regions [Köppen]". Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. June 2003. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  55. ^ a b "Climate: Montreal - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  56. ^ "First 20 degrees Celsius". Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  57. ^ Canadian Climate Normals - Dorval International Airport
  58. ^ "Climate Data Online". 
  59. ^ Burt, Christopher C. (2007). Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book. p. 61. 
  60. ^ a b Environment CanadaCanadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
  61. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1961–1990". Environment Canada. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  62. ^ "Welcome to Industrial Montreal". McGill University. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  63. ^ "Montréal". Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada. Parks Canada. Retrieved July 31, 2011. 
  64. ^ "CONTACT". About. Icograda. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  65. ^ "The International Design Alliance Settles in Montreal". Canadian Corporate News (CCNMatthews Newswire). May 30, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  66. ^ "Neighbourhoods". Gromco, Inc. Montreal Bits. 2005-2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  67. ^ Barbonne, Rémy. "Gentrification, nouvel urbanisme et évolution de la mobilité quotidienne : vers un développement plus durable ? Le cas du Plateau Mont-Royal (1998–2003)". Recherches sociographiques. Érudit. Retrieved August 4, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Artists by neighbourhood in Canada" (PDF). Canada 2001 Census. Hill Strategies. October 2005. p. 3. Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  69. ^ Taddeo, D.J. (December 23, 1996). "The Growing Importance of the Container Trade for the Port of Montreal and the Accompanying Business Concentration; How to Diversify its Operational and Financial Risk" (PDF). Port of Montreal. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  70. ^ a b c d Berryman, Tom. "Short History of Mount Royal". Les amis de la montagne. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery Mission". Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  72. ^ "The cemeteries of Mount Royal". Les amis de la montagne. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  73. ^ "Mount Royal Crematorium". Mount Royal Cemetery. 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2012. 
  74. ^ Silverman, Craig (June 14, 2004). "The future of the Mount Royal cross". Hour (magazine). Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  75. ^ "Montréal en statistiques — Population totale". Ville de Montréal. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  76. ^ "Évolution démographique des 10 principales villes du Québec (sur la base de 2006) selon leur limites territoriales actuelles". Institut de la statistique du Québec (in French). Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  77. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. March 13, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2007. 
  78. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. March 13, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2007. 
  79. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada, Highlight Tables, 2006 Census: Montreal(CMA)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved April 2, 2008. 
  80. ^ "Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census: Canada's major census metropolitan areas". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. February 11, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2011. 
  81. ^ "Proportion of visible minorities, Canada, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981 to 2001". Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  82. ^
  83. ^ "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census". August 11, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  84. ^
  85. ^ "Appendix: Table A1 Population by visible minority group and place of residence, scenario C (high growth), Canada, 2006". March 9, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  86. ^ a b "Montreal (CMA) – Detailed Mother Tongue". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. April 1, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  87. ^ CBC Article – Church attendance declining in Canada
  88. ^ a b c "2001 Community Highlights for Montréal". Statistics Canada. Retrieved August 2, 2007. 
  89. ^ "2001 Community Highlights for Hampstead". Statistics Canada. Retrieved August 2, 2007. 
  90. ^ "2001 Community Highlights for Côte Saint-Luc". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  91. ^ Shahar, Charles. “Main Report: A Comprehensive Study of the Ultra Orthodox Community of Greater Montreal (2003)”. Federation CJA (Montreal). (2003): pp. 7-33.
  92. ^ a b "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved November 20, 2009.  Toronto was 1st in Canada with C$253 billion GDP.
  93. ^ In 2008 Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for C$123 billion of Quebec's C$249 billion GDP
  94. ^ AEROSPACE: Metro Montreal 2003, Strategic Profile (PDF). Montreal, Quebec: thomas finney. 1760. Archived from the original on November 18, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  95. ^ "The Port of Montreal unveils its project, which will generate $3.4 billion in annual economic spinoffs for Montreal" (PDF). Press Release. Port of Montreal. April 17, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  96. ^ "Contact Us — CN Mailing Address". Canadian National Railway. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  97. ^ a b Nemeth, Mary; Liz Warwick (December 4, 1995). "CP Rail Leaves Montreal". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  98. ^ "CSA Headquarters". Contact Us. Canadian Space Agency. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  99. ^ "Contact Us". International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Regional Offices". World Anti-Doping Agency. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  101. ^ "Airports Council International". December 1, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  102. ^ "Our Offices". About Us. International Air Transport Association. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  103. ^ "Contact Us". International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  104. ^ Kelly, Brendan (May 24, 2007). "Montreal gladly reclaims its 'Hollywood North' tag". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  105. ^ Kelly, Brendan (August 13, 2008). "Montreal tries luring Hollywood back". Variety (magazine). Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  106. ^ "Culture exports "should pass the test of the market"". China View. March 10, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  107. ^ French, Michael (February 9, 2007). "Ubisoft Montreal to become world's biggest studio". Develop Magazine. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  108. ^ Hadekel, Peter (March 24, 2010). "Warner Brothers Interactive picks Montreal because of talent – and the money tag". The Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 2010-07-15. Retrieved March 27, 2010. 
  109. ^ "Home Office address on contact page". July 28, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  110. ^ "World Headquarters address on contact page".<!. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  111. ^ "World Headquarters address on bottom of contact page –". July 27, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  112. ^ "World Headquarters address on contact page". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  113. ^ "Investors Contacts." Air Canada. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  114. ^ "Contact Us." Air Transat. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  115. ^ "World Headquarters address on contact page".<!. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  116. ^ "World Headquarters address on contact page".<!. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Quebecor inc". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  118. ^ "Jean Coutu Pharmacy, health specialists and beauty advice". January 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  119. ^ "Contact us!". Uniprix. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  120. ^
  121. ^ "General Inquiries". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  122. ^ "Contact Us." Bell Canada. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
  123. ^ "Standard Life Canada". Archived from the original on 2011-12-16. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  124. ^ "Molson Coors Canada". Molson Coors. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Contacts". SNC-Lavalin. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Company | Contact us". MEGA Brands. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  127. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  128. ^ "Contacts". Agropur. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  129. ^ "Contact Us". Astal Media. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  130. ^ "By mail". Laurentian Bank. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  131. ^ "Contact – National Bank of Canada". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  132. ^ "Contact Us." Transat A.T. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  133. ^ "Useful information to help plan your train trip | VIA Rail". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  134. ^ "Contacts". Rona. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  135. ^ Twain, Mark (December 10, 1881). "MARK TWAIN IN MONTREAL". New York Times ( Retrieved February 2, 2008. 
  136. ^ "St. Joseph Oratory". A view on cities. 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  137. ^ "Robinson rated ready for Dodgers in '47". The Sporting News. August 13, 1946. Retrieved June 6, 2008. 
  138. ^ "Ballpark financing issue may kill deal". ESPN (AP. December 15, 2004. Retrieved March 23, 2009. 
  139. ^ "Olympic Stadium – Montreal's FIFA U-20 World Cup Venue". Canada Soccer. July 17, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  140. ^ "Canada dropped from F1 calendar". BBC News. October 8, 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  141. ^ "Rogers extends tennis sponsorship to 2008". YFile. York University. February 16, 2005. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  142. ^ "Quebec's Big Owe stadium debt is over". Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 19, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  143. ^ Markham, Christina (February 7, 2006). "FEATURE: It's all fun and games 'til you're up to your eyes in debt". The McGill Tribune. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  144. ^ Woods, Allan (November 5, 2012). "Montreal Mayor Gérald Tremblay quits". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  145. ^ "Mayoral vacancy will be short-lived". The Gazette, November 6, 2012.
  146. ^ "Michael Applebaum elected mayor of Montreal". CTV News, November 16, 2012.
  147. ^ Mayor Applebaum has resigned
  148. ^ Laurent Blanchard
  149. ^ "City Council". City Hall. Ville de Montréal. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  150. ^ "The CMM at a Glance". Statistics. Montreal Metropolitan Community. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  151. ^ Territorial Division Act. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
  152. ^ "University attendance: Montréal ranks first in relative terms and fifth in absolute terms in North America". Canada Economic Development for Quebec regions. 1996. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008. 
  153. ^
  154. ^
  155. ^ Turbide, Nadia (2008). "Concordia University". Histor!ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 
  156. ^
  157. ^ "English Montreal School Board". English Montreal School Board. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  158. ^ "Lester B. Pearson School Board". Lester B. Pearson School Board. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  159. ^ "Commission scolaire de Montréal". Commission scolaire de Montréal. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  160. ^ "Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys". Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys - Montréal. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  161. ^ "Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île". Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  162. ^ "The keys to success for Smart Commuting Montreal, the Downtown Montreal Transportation Management Centre". European Platform on Mobility Management. 2004. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  163. ^ "The completion of Autoroute 30". Objectives. Transports Québec. August 1, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  164. ^ a b
  165. ^ "The Bus Network: All Over Montreal" (PDF). Société de transport de Montréal. 2004. p. 4. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  166. ^ "Plan du métro de Montréal". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  167. ^ Giniger, Henry (November 22, 1981). "WHAT'S DOING IN MONTREAL". New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  168. ^ "Premier cuts ribbon on metro extension to Laval" (PDF). Montreal Gazette. April 26, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  169. ^ "Montréal Public Transport System". European Metropolitan Transport Authorities. February 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  170. ^ "About Air Canada – Corporate Profile". Air Canada. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  171. ^ "Air Transat". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  172. ^ "Mirabel airport bids final passengers farewell". November 1, 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  173. ^ Gazette, The (August 30, 2007). "It's liftoff for AirMédic ambulance". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  174. ^ La Presse (May 14, 2007). "Mirabel redécolle". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  175. ^ "Hélibellule fleet". Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  176. ^ LeClerc, Martin (September 8, 2007). "Hélibellule fait revivre le transport des passagers à Mirabel" (in French). TC Media. Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. 
  177. ^ "Aéroports de Montréal Passenger Statistics". Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  178. ^ "Transport Canada TP 577 – Aircraft Movement Statistics Annual Report 2006". Aviation Statistics Centre - Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. 
  179. ^
  180. ^ "TP141 – Aircraft Movement Statistics". July 8, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  181. ^ "Aéroports de Montréal Passenger Statistics". Archived from the original on August 4, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  182. ^ "Welcome to Montréal-Trudeau". Aéroports de Montréal. Archived from the original on August 5, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  183. ^ "Aer Rianta International: Worldwide Locations > Americas > Montreal". Aer Rianta International. Retrieved February 4, 2008. 
  184. ^ "A Brief History". General Public. Canadian Pacific Railway. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  185. ^ "Where We Ship". Customers. Canadian Pacific Railway. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  186. ^ "Birth of Canadian National 1916–1923". Canadian National History. Canadian National Railway. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  187. ^ "Profits and Passengers – 1960–1979". Canadian National History. Canadian National Railway. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  188. ^ Ville de Montréal. "Déclaration d'intention d'amitié et de coopération entre les Villes de Montréal et le Gouvernorat du Grand Alger (mars 1999)". Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  189. ^ "Busan News-Efforts increased for market exploration in N. America". Community > Notice. Busan Dong-Gu District Office. June 4, 2007. Archived from the original on May 21, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  |coauthors= requires |author= (help)
  190. ^ a b c "Liste – Protocoles et Ententes Internationales Impliquant La Ville de Montréal". 
  191. ^ "Sister City: The City of Montreal". International Relations Division, International Peace Promotion Department. The City of Hiroshima. 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  |coauthors= requires |author= (help)
  192. ^ "Little India Montreal!". Retrieved February 17, 2008. 
  193. ^ "Partner cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". Ville de Lyon. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  |coauthors= requires |author= (help)
  194. ^ "Manila-Montreal Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. June 24, 2005. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  |coauthors= requires |author= (help)
  195. ^ Mairie de Paris. "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération". Retrieved October 14, 2007. 
  196. ^ "Window of Shanghai". Humanities and Social Sciences Library. McGill University. 2008. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 
  197. ^ "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  198. ^ "Sister Towns — MONTREAL". International Cooperation. Yerevan Municipality. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Collard, Edgar A. (1976). Montréal: the Days That Are No More, in series, Totem Book[s]. This ed. slightly edited [anew]. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada, [1978], cop. 1976. x, 140, [4] p., ill. in b&w with maps and numerous sketches. ISBN 0-00-216686-0
  • Gagnon, Robert (1996). Anglophones at the C.E.C.M.: a Reflection of the Linguistic Duality of Montréal. Trans. by Peter Keating. Montréal: Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal. 124 p., ill. with b&w photos. ISBN 2-920855-98-0
  • Harris; Lyon, Patricia David (2004). Montréal. Fodor's. ISBN 1-4000-1315-1. 
  • Marsan, Jean-Claude (1990). Montreal in evolution. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-0798-1. 
  • "2006 Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008. 
  • "Montreal". 2006 Census of Canada: Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008. 
  • Natural Resources Canada (2005). Canadian Geographical Names: Island of Montreal. Retrieved August 29, 2005.
  • Michael Sletcher, 'Montréal', in James Ciment, ed., Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History, (5 vols., N.Y., 2005).

External links[edit]